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*Small calorie* (cal) is the energy needed to increase 1 gram of water by 1°C at a pressure of 1 atmosphere.

*Large calorie* (Cal) is the energy needed to increase 1 kg of water by 1°C at a pressure of 1 atmosphere.

*Large calorie* is also called *food calorie* and is used as a unit of food energy.

1 cal_{th} = 4.184 J

The energy in thermochemical calories *E*_{(calth)} is equal to the energy in joules*E*_{(J)} divided by 4.184:

*E*_{(cal)} = *E*_{(J)} / 4.184

1 cal_{15} = 4.1855 J

The energy in 15°C calories *E*_{(cal15)}is equal to the energy in joules *E*_{(J)} divided by 4.1855:

*E*_{(cal15)} =*E*_{(J)} / 4.1855